Forest and Land Reform Program (FLRP)

Problems and Issues

One can easily conclude that there were lack of law enforcement with regard to forest, land and natural resources; and most of the existing laws were also outdated and irrelevant to-date. Local communities that dependent on forest, land and natural resources were given the permission of utilization only. They cannot control nor have the right to choose the kind of crops they wanted to grow. There was no specific mention of the role of local communities or that of the ethnic/tribal/indigenous people in the laws but in the process of long advocacy started mentioning about the respect of customary practices. When local communities or ethnic/tribal or indigenous people face charges against forest, land and resources it was most likely that they will fail as they have no paper nor prove of document in terms of registration/ownership. It was still sad to see that cases still exist in the case of lawsuits; the courts normally do not pass judgment based on justice nor proper judiciary system but relied heavily on (or had to wait for) the order/instruction of the Central Committee for Land Utilization Management (CCLUM) or Central Committee for the management of Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Lands (CCMVFVL) or Central Committee for National Land Resource management (CCNLRM) or the Central Committee for Reinsertion of Farmland and Other Land Acquisition or the Union Assembly Legal Affairs Advisory Committee or other additional union-level multi-ministerial central committees (including the Central Administrative Body of the Farmland, the Climate Change and Disaster Management Committee & the Special Economic Zone Committees); only then decreed!

Still there was a lack of people centered approach in relation to forest, land and resources governance on the ground. There was no clear set of rules or laws for the occupancy of shifting cultivation or taung-yar practices in the ethnic or indigenous people-controlled areas. We can find common law but there was no separate laws stipulated on communal or indigenous peoples’ law or customary rights. Attention is still needed to be given to empower the role of women and increase women’s participation/rights in the establishment of community forest and resource governance.


Towards greener, peaceful and transparent resource governance


Forwarding with the spirit of unity and self-reliance

Specific Objective

  1. Create favorable policy instrument and legislative framework for pro-poor land use and forest management
  2. Increase the role and capacity of local community and indigenous people in forest, land use and resource management

Theory of Change

Forest and land reform program (FLRP) of ALARM aims to improve the natural resource governance in terms of promoting the role of civil society and people participation in decision making processes in relation to sustainable management of forest, land, resources and biological diversity by end of 2020. Some of key approaches include, national ceasefire agreement, natural resource management & governance, people centered forest policy, revision of forest law, development of environmental CSO Directory, partnership with private sector and engagement in the government led implementation of forest law enforcement, governance and trade- voluntary partnership agreement (FLEGT-VPA) & EITI processes. Making full and balanced utilization of five development resources such as human, social, natural resources, physical elements and financial; and emphasizing the following eleven approaches, laying down eleven program activities and cautioning with four assumptions by means of networking among key stakeholders; ALARM exist to make a change.

Expected Long Term Change or Outcome

  1. Revenues, resource shared and environmental justice prevailed
  2. Ensured sharing of power and governance of resources
  3. Created the technical taskforces (Local CSO & CBO Partners) and the pool of resource persons increased in the process of democratic transition/reform through FLRP

Role of ALARM & Approach

  1. Facilitation and supporting in the national ceasefire agreement and in transition to federal democracy
  2. Poverty reduction in the process of natural resource governance
  3. Working towards people centered forest policy and forest law
  4. Development and publication of Environment related CSOs’ Directory
  5. Partnership with Private Sector in relation to CFE
  6. Participation and ensuring equal representation of government, private and CSO sectors for Multi-stakeholder group (MSG) in election and formation
  7. Engagement in Voluntary Partnership Agreement between EU and Myanmar for the process of forest law enforcement, governance and Trade and in EITI implementation process from CSO perspectives
  8. Collaboration and coordination with all concerned stakeholders
  9. Mainstreaming women empowerment in all FLRP activities
  10. Defend the rights of the poor, marginalized communities and indigenous people
  11. Advocating selected FLRP and related issues and concerns

Program Activities

  1. Preparation, designing, development and publishing the guidelines for citizen jury or environmental conflict mediation
  2. Implementation of national level FLEGT VPA process relevant to the organization’s policy, values and beliefs
  3. Development and publishing of environmental sensitivity maps
  4. Supporting and engagement in the official channel of EITI process including the development of MEITI legislative framework, including MSG
  5. Writing of Policy related papers (forest including law, regulation & landscape restoration, CF & CFE, national land use, revising national climate change & environmental policy, etc…)
  6. Writing and/or revision of Environmental related law, regulation, guidelines for standard, testing environmental quality & participatory environmental monitoring, etc…)
  7. Strengthening the networks and capacity of CSOs & CBOs
  8. Integrate gender mainstreaming in forest, land and environment related activities
  9. Conducting evidence based studies or researches relating to FLRP
  10. Developing the IEC materials on environmental and natural resources
  11. Seeking and implementation/operation of international donors’ funded projects like JPF, EIA, Trocaire, FHI360, NORAD, High Water Global, NPA and FAO.


  1. The ruling NLD party is governing the country smoothly in the democratic transition and reform process as promised and managing well in the endeavors of National reconciliation and peace in the country.
  2. The government is smart enough to handle and absorb the oppositions of other political parties
  3. The government is able to laid down basic foundations in terms of economy, education and social aspects of the country as a whole.
  4. The transition and changing of political paradigm must be acceptable by military leaders, people who oppose to change (Cronies …) and one-sided politicians.